"A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements."
BS 7925-1. British Computer Society Specialist Interest Group in Software Testing (BCS SIGIST)
Statement Testing is a structural or white box technique
, because it is conducted with reference to the code.
In an ideal world every statement of every component would be fully tested. However, in the real world this hardly ever happens.
In statement testing every possible statement is tested. Compare this to Branch testing
, where each branch is tested, to check that it can be traversed, whether it encounters a statement or not.